Mentores y Mentees: una alianza con muchos beneficios

Motivados por las circunstancias adversas que suelen experimentar muchos estudiantes latinos como son: falta de recursos económicos, poco acceso a tecnología y conocimientos actualizados, sexismo y otras limitantes, en Ekpa’palek nos dimos a la tarea de reunir a un grupo de profesionales para llevar adelante el Programa de Mentorías Profesionales, entre otros programas totalmente gratuitos. Son muchas las experiencias y valiosos testimonios surgidos a partir de los contactos ya afianzados entre Mentores y Mentees.

Sigue leyendo

Arianna Piccialli: entre Mars Express y la atmósfera de Venus

Hoy conoceremos un poco más acerca de la trayectoria y experiencia profesional de una de nuestras mentoras: Arianna Piccialli. Ella es natural de Nápoles, Italia y está graduada en Física con especialidad en Astrofísica. Realizó su doctorado en el Instituto Max Planck  (Alemania) en relación a la Investigación del Sistema Solar, luego cursó un postdoctorado en Francia y actualmente está residenciada en Bélgica, donde se desempeña como investigadora y comunicadora científica.

A continuación los invitamos a leer y a disfrutar su historia. 


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Ariana Picciali, mentora Ekpa’palek

Nací en Nápoles, Italia…

Debo a mis padres el amor por la ciencia..

Ya con 15 años sabía que quería ser científica…

Mi padre era profesor de física en la Universidad de Nápoles, donde investigaba la música electrónica. Aunque falleció cuando yo tenía solo 15 años, me ha inspirado mucho con su entusiasmo, su curiosidad y su amor por la ciencia. Mi madre – inicialmente investigadora en ciencias sociales y luego profesora de instituto – ha sido, y sigue siendo mi mayor apoyo para mi decisión de ser una científica.

Gracias a ella, he descubierto importantes modelos en la ciencia como Marie Curie, Rita Levi Montalcini, y Konrad Lorenz.

Estudié Física en la Universidad Federico II de Nápoles y he elegido una especialización en Astrofísica. Tuve la oportunidad de pasar el último año de mi máster entre el Observatorio Astronómico de Capodimonte (Nápoles) y el Instituto de Astrofísica y Planetología Espacial (IAPS), en Roma. Allí, investigué la atmósfera de Marte utilizando los datos recientes de la misión europea Mars Express. Después de mi graduación, me quedó muy claro que quería continuar mis estudios en atmósferas planetarias. Mi sueño se volvió realidad cuando supe que me aceptaban para un doctorado en el Instituto Max Planck para la Investigación del Sistema Solar en Alemania, donde pude investigar la atmósfera de Venus!

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Aprender idiomas me encanta, para mi es una manera de poderme relacionar con otras culturas y gente de otro país. Mi lengua materna es el italiano. Durante mis estudios he aprendido inglés, indispensable hoy día en el mundo de la ciencia. Aprendí el español con una beca Erasmus en España y el alemán durante mi doctorado. Cuando hice mi postdoctorado en Francia, tuve la posibilidad de aprender francés y ahora en Bélgica estoy intentando aprender holandés.

Mi primera experiencia en otro país fue en España como estudiante Erasmus. Ahora hace 11 años que llevo viajando y estudiando en otros países. Estuve en Alemania, Los países bajos, Francia y ahora en Bélgica.

Como investigadora, es muy importante tener una experiencia en otro país, ya que permite ver las cosas desde una perspectiva diferente, adquirir nuevas habilidades y comenzar nuevas colaboraciones.

Pero no todo es positivo en la (hyper-) movilidad: no todos pueden seguir este estilo de vida, por ejemplo, por motivos familiares o por problemas de salud. Los costos de reubicación continua, tanto económica como física y mentalmente, se vuelven eventualmente demasiado altos y, en mi opinión, no son ventajosos para el avance de la carrera, ya que no permiten hacer planes a largo plazo. Eso es, desde mi punto de vista, uno de los problemas mayores de la investigación: hoy en día, en Europa obtener una posición permanente o incluso a largo plazo, se ha vuelto extremadamente difícil, si no imposible.

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Durante los primeros años de mis estudios universitarios pasaba meses enteros en casa preparándome para los exámenes, sin mucha vida social, ni otras actividades. Con el tiempo he aprendido a mantener un mejor equilibrio entre carrera y vida privada. Me encanta pasar el tiempo en la naturaleza: siempre que sea posible los fines de semana salgo de excursión. Tengo la suerte de estar en Bélgica, que es un país muy verde y ofrece muchas posibilidades para estar al aire libre. Sin embargo, también soy una persona de ciudad. Me gusta ir a eventos culturales, como cines, teatros, conciertos, me gusta mucho la música de jazz.

Ya que paso la mayor parte del tiempo frente a una computadora, correr, nadar y hacer yoga se han convertido en algo necesario para mi bienestar mental y físico. Pero también me encanta pasar un rato tranquilo: quedarme en casa a leer un libro o cocinar.

Mis Mentores

Tuve la oportunidad de tener una profesora de matemática y ciencia en mi instituto secundario, que siempre nos motivó a seguir nuestras pasiones. Debo a ella mi amor por la Astronomía: debido a que tenía que escribir un relato, fui por primera vez al Observatorio Astronómico de Nápoles. A lo largo de mi carrera he encontrado muchas personas – mi supervisores, o amigos – que han sido un ejemplo importante y me han dado muchos consejos útiles. 

A otros estudiantes

En Europa hay muchas becas internacionales para estudiantes. Una primera etapa puede ser contactar con la propia universidad: es posible que ya existan becas para intercambios. Otro sitio donde es posible buscar oportunidades para doctorados o postdoctorados en Europa es: https://euraxess.ec.europa.eu/. Allí, es posible también buscar informaciones sobre los países Europeos.

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Mi carrera en la actualidad

Como explicado antes, hoy en día, en Europa obtener en la investigación una posición permanente o incluso a largo plazo se ha vuelto extremadamente difícil, si no imposible. Pero hay muchas otras posibilidades fuera del mundo académico igualmente interesantes y apasionantes. Mi consejo es que durante los estudios no se focalicen solo en una cosa, sino que también se desarrollen otras pasiones e intereses. La vida a menudo es impredecible y es importante mantener diferentes carreras profesionales abiertas.


Agradecemos a Arianna por esta entrevista y por compartir pasajes de su historia con la comunidad Ekpa’palek, no dudes en contactarla como parte de nuestro programa de mentorías profesionales!

Encuéntranos en : 

https://www.ekpapalek.com/mentorias-profesionales

Saludos cordiales,

Vilma y Clarissa

 

 

 

Guía para aplicar a programas de Ph.D., en Estados Unidos – II Parte

Continuando con la publicación de la Guía para aplicar a programas de Ph.D., en Estados Unidos, presentamos los capítulos restantes, del 4 al 10, que pueden enlazar con la primera publicación: Guía para aplicar a programas de PhD., en Estados Unidos– Oportunidades.

Como se explica con anterioridad, este material es una contribución del ingeniero Kevin Villegas Rosales, elaborada para apoyar a otros jóvenes profesionales en la búsqueda de oportunidades de especialización.

Continuación:

  1. Letter of Recommendation
  2. What sets you apart: the letter of recommendation

The letter of recommendation is the core of your application, and to be honest it takes years to build good letters. In specific cases a letter of recommendation can grand you admission immediately, and perhaps make you competitive against the world.

Professors are very busy people. They have to take care of their students, the funding, the lab, the presentations, the lectures, and, even most important, their families. So as a rule of thumb, the letter of recommendation should be asked several weeks in advance before the deadline. One month in advance is a good amount of time.

Also, you need to consider that the professors need to write the letter and that could take time as well. Crafting an astonishing letter is a lengthy and tedious process.

When I sent out an e-mail to my professors I attached my CV (includes your past academic/research achievements), a brief description of the places/positions that I was applying to, and info about your future intended research and academic goals.

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Down I put the layout of the e-mail that I sent.

I recall that my professors didn’t get back to me after a week, so I decided to send a follow up e-mail (this was a suggestion of Luis Jauregui and I think is great idea and I still use it these days). Sunday nights are a great time to send out e-mails, so he/she can check it on Monday morning. Hence, the ideal time to send a follow up e-mail would be Sunday night as well.

From one of my professors I got this reply: ‘Yes. I will be happy to write a letter for you. Pls make sure send me a list of addresses and due dates, and copy to xxx. (Also remind/check the letters status 1-2 days before the due dates).

You will get notified as the letters of recommendations are submitted, so if 1.5 weeks before the deadline they are not there yet send a reminder. One of my professors send the letters after the admission’s deadlines and there was no problem. In most of the cases this is ok, since the graduate schools knows about all the ups and downs of writing a letter of recommendation. The application process asks you for three letters of recommendation.

It is mandatory that one of them come from your college, but the other two could come from any part of the world. One of my letters came from undergraduate adviser at UNI, Abel Gutarra. The other two came from abroad. One from Prof. Yong P. Chen at Purdue University (this came from my internship with nanoREPU). The last letter came from Prof. Gianluigi Botton at McMaster University (this is an internship I did the year after my time at Purdue). So, I managed to get three letters of recommendation. From the admission’s perspective it is better to have letters from people that are known worldwide. After you got screened with the standardized test they will give more chances to well-known names that unknowns letter from Peru, unfortunately. That is all for now.

  1. Letter of Recommendation

Dear Prof. XXXX

This is XXXX (nanoREPU), the undergraduate from Peru that worked in your laboratory during the spring semester of 2013. I worked under Dr. Tai-Lung Wu’s guidance in the superconductivity of exfoliated BSCCO samples. I hope everything is going great with the research at the QMD lab, and that all the projects are going great.

I am graduating from my undergrad next month, and I am in the application process for graduate school, and I was wondering if I could get a letter of recommendation on my behalf. My CV is attached.

I am applying for PhD to the following places: Purdue University (ECE), Columbia University (Phys.), Stanford University (Appl. Phys.), UC Berkeley (Phys.), Princeton University (Phys.), Cornell (Appl. Phys.), Harvard (Appl. Phys.), UC San Diego (Phys.), MIT (Phys.), and McMaster (MSE). My interest in those departments is in nanoscience, nanotechnology, and condense matter. I want to mainly focus in the study of quantum phenomena in nanosystems, and also introduce these new phenomena and properties into new technologies. I want to make a difference and contribute to the scientific community with new knowledge, and I think I can do that, first, through graduate school; later on, I would like to follow a position in academia.

Please, let me know if you have any questions.

Thanks you so much in advance.

Best rega

XXXXXX

 

 

  1. Statement of Purpose
  2. You are not a robot: statement of purpose

The statement of Purpose exists to bring life to your application. It will show to the admission’s office that the you write a proper essay. As the standardized tests, a perfect SoP won’t grant you admission, but a bad written one could put you out of the race.

A statement of purpose that dazzles takes a couples of months of rewriting and rewriting. I found writing the essay very interesting. It made me realize what has happened up to that point career wise.

I started my SoP by deconstructing the past. I went through memories from college, high school, etc. of events that I believed led me to where I was standing at that point. I believe I named all of the great life-changing events that led me where I was.

Back when I was writing the essay I convinced myself that a good SoP will make you stand out among hundreds of applicants. Up to this point I haven’t been able to clarify the mysteries behind the admission process. Nevertheless, after reviewing hundreds of applications the CVs tend to look quite similar.

I started thinking about the outline of the SoP as I read: How to write a winning personal statement for graduate and professional school by Richard J. Stelzer. You can find it in the library of EducationUSA or on the internet. Also, there is plenty of information in the internet about how to write a great statement of purpose.

Each statement of purpose is different for each school you are applying to, because each school ask you to answer different specific questions. So, be sure to follow what they ask you. Let’s see what some schools got to tell you.

Purdue University. The statement of purpose should be 300-500 words concerning your purpose for undertaking or continuing graduate study, your reasons for wanting to study at Purdue, and your research interests, professional plans, and career goals. You also may explain any special circumstances applicable to your background and elaborate on your scholarly publications, awards, achievements, abilities, and/or professional history.

Columbia University. Describe how your professional and academic background has prepared you to pursue the Ph.D. program in Electrical Engineering at Columbia University FFSEAS. If there are any special circumstances that need to be brought to the attention of the Admission Committee, please include that information as well.

Stanford University. The Statement of Purpose should describe succinctly your reasons for applying to the proposed program at Stanford, your preparation for this field of study, research interests, future career plans, and other aspects of your background and interests which may aid the admissions committee in evaluating your aptitude and motivation for graduate study. The Statement of Purpose should not exceed two pages.

UC Berkeley. Please describe your aptitude and motivation for graduate study in your area of specialization, including your preparation for this field of study, your academic plans or research interests in your chosen area of study, and your future career goals. Please be specific about why UC Berkeley would be a good intellectual fit for you.

  1. Statement of Purpose

 Princeton University. Please write a statement of your current academic and future career plans as they relate to the Princeton department to which you are applying. In doing so, please cite relevant academic, professional and personal experiences that influenced your decision to apply for graduate admission and to obtain a graduate degree. Your statement should not exceed 1,000 words and must be written in English.

Cornell University. This one- or two-page statement states your reasons for undertaking graduate work and explains your academic interests, including their relation to your undergraduate study and professional goals. Include your full name and your proposed field of study at the top of each page.

Harvard University. You will be asked to answer the following question: “Describe your reasons and motivations for pursuing a graduate degree in your chosen program of study at Harvard. What experiences led you to your research ambitions? Concisely state your past work in your intended field of study and in related fields. Briefly indicate your career objectives. Your statement should not exceed 1,000 words.”

So, begin by understanding well what each program asks from you.

Your first step into graduate school, the first paragraph.

I never learned how to write properly. I used to fall asleep in Spanish and Grammar classes and did not have rigorous education. However, along the way of the application I learned a structure of how the SoP should look like. I learned that, in this template, the first paragraph serves to summarize all your essay and conveys enough information to be self-sustained. Also, during those months I learned that it is true that most of the time you will only read the very first few lines of an e-mail, essay, etc. So, try to get the attention of the reader with your first paragraph. Begin with a catchy sentence. Write about a personal experience that put you where you are right now – something to surprise the reader. Then, name your personal experiences in research, and order them in a coherent way to convey how these events opened your eyes into your future. Correlate your experiences with your future goals e.g. with your journey of learning and discovery. Build your profile mentioning your outstanding GPA, and convey the idea of a top notch student mentioning briefly the awards you have gain through all the past years. Furthermore, you can add a little more of a personality to your first paragraph by mentioning some outreach activities, and end with a very piercing and vehement sentence.

These what I kind of did and it just one way of doing it. I had a lot of help from people that revisited my essay repeatedly. Just before the submission the final essay looked so different from the first draft I made – that energized me, it is possible to make things better by iteration.

Your next paragraphs should deconstruct your future goals and interests. Show your future intents. Why you are interested in that specific research program at that specific school? Facilities, location, faculty, etc. Mention three professors you are interested to work with. Briefly mention what interests you from them.

Finally, you can dive yourself into your past experiences in detail. Reconstruct the steps that walked you to research, to your specific topic of research. Enumerate the different aspects of your contribution into the different research projects you have participated into. Write, gracefully, those moments that surprised you – remember that this is your only chance to put.

  1. Statement of Purpose

Your own voice into your application, so do not tell a story as a robot. Mention the techniques and new knowledge acquired, and, more important, highlight your discoveries. Enumerate your diligent efforts to achieve all what you have accomplished.

Finally, conclude with a boilerplate sentence such as ‘I am sure I am the best fit for your program, etc.’

Below, you will find the final draft of my essay.

When I was a child and watched science tv shows, I was always fascinated by the latest discoveries and continually asked myself how do they do it? Years later as an undergraduate in engineering physics, the blending of engineering and physics combined with research experiences answered my question. My questions were satisfied once I had the opportunity to perform research at three different universities in a multidisciplinary field (nanotechnology): National University of Engineering (Peru, 1 article published), Purdue University (USA) and McMaster University (Canada). In these research experiences, I interacted with several PhD students, post-doctors and professors. As a result, I realized that I wanted to make a contribution in science and engineering. Therefore, I strongly believe that being trained to conduct research at the graduate level will help my ongoing pursuit of learning and discovery. Working diligently in my research internships and simultaneously maintaining a 4.0 GPA has been very challenging but rewarding because I have received several awards from my university, the Peruvian NSF, and different non-governmental offices that sponsored my internships. My leadership skills were also sharpened during my experiences abroad and I have organized journal clubs and research seminars at my local school, to motivate other undergraduate students to perform high level research. All my research experiences have enhanced my confidence and motivation to pursue graduate studies. I am certain that I will overcome all the challenges I will face with an astute mind and determination.

My short term goal is to conduct research in electrical engineering as a PhD student at Princeton University because it will expose me to state-of-art research such as 2D materials such as graphene in condensed matter. The electrical engineering faculty generates top-notch research of which I am very familiar with and would be excited to be part of.

I would like to have the guidance of Prof. M. Shayegan because of his study of many-body interactions systems in semiconductors such as the integer and fractional quantum hall effect. In addition, I would like to work with Prof. B. Rand because of his work in the engineering of LED using thin films conformed purely in nanoclusters. I think their work is a good match with my previous experience in 2D materials, scanning probe microscopes, and electron microscopy. My long term goal is to become a professor in a research university and contribute to a growing body of scientists and engineers in Peru who are determined to nurture the next generation of students interested in science and engineering as I am.

  1. Statement of Purpose

As a side project, I decided to design and build a lock-in amplifier from scratch. After having constructed it, I obtained data showing that I could measure picoamperes with the lock-in amplifier.

My second cornerstone happened when I was selected by the nanotechnology branch of Research Experience for Peruvian Undergraduates (REPU) program from a pool of the best undergraduate students from all over Peru to participate in a research experience at Purdue University. In 2013, I worked in Prof. Yong P. Chen’s group in the fabrication of stacked devices using BiSrCaCuO as one component of a heterostructure. Before learning how to exfoliate BiSrCaCuO I went through the exfoliation of other crystals, such as graphene, MoS2, NbSe2 and boron nitride, which I learned in record time. In order to complete the project, we fabricated BSCCO field-effect transistors and we identified vanishing superconductivity for samples thinner than 80 nm. During my time at Purdue, I attended the APS March meeting of 2013 in Maryland. Running from room to room to catch various, interesting talks was very exciting, and being surrounded by well-known and respected scientists really inspired me. That experience motivated me to work harder to become a great scientist/engineer. At the end of my internship, I went to Yale University to present my work from Purdue University to professors, post-docs, PhD students, other undergraduates from Yale University, and the REPU community. During this final meeting, I enjoyed questions and discussions with people from different backgrounds like chemistry, biology, physics and engineering.

Finally, my third cornerstone was when I interned at McMaster University (Canada). In order to get this internship I directly contacted Prof. Gianluigi Botton and I convinced him that I was capable of conducting research well. In Prof. Botton’s group my project was to study graphene as an electrode for fuel cells. More specifically, my project consisted in the mechanically exfoliation of graphene, doped it with nitrogen gas, and sputter platinum on it (~1nm clusters). In order to study graphene with transmission electron microscopes (TEM), I suspended graphene on a TEM grid. After more than 20 failed trials with different reported methods I designed and built a transfer stage backed up with an optical microscope, which enhanced the transfer yield rate. We reliably measured down to 1% concentration of nitrogen in single layer graphene using Auger spectroscopy.

In conclusion, I believe that my experiences as an undergraduate researcher have prepared me to excel as a graduate student, and I strongly believe to be prepared for the challenges of your PhD program.

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  2. The Resume is not an academic document: the curriculum vitae (CV)

At the end of this section you will find the CV that I applied to graduate school with. The layout was not my original idea but the contribution of senior people who helped to shape it. I would like to give special acknowledgements to the nanoREPU team which had a great contribution on this layout.

Looking back into what the my CV ended up being I recognized these themes: Objective, Research Interests, Education, Awards, Publications, Research Experience, Conferences and Presentations, Laboratory skills, Memberships, Language skills, Extra – curricular courses, Academic Leadership, and Personal References. This outline must not be considered a universal guideline, proceed to adapt it to your own personality.

The Objective section will give the reader a glance about yourself and your future goals towards a graduate program.

The Research Interests section will give the reader a glance about your personal interest regarding research. It is a crucial part because a mismatch between your interests will rise suspicions.

The Education section will summarize your past records. You may include the duration of the program, your major, but most important it is a great spot to give your class ranking and your GPA.

The Awards section it is of great importance. The recognition of yourself by others is a good indicator of accomplishments throughout your career.

The Publications sections is a very important one. However, none graduate program requires prior publications before entering a PhD or a MS. It is in this sections where you list any publications you have. Furthermore, you could also show that you have ongoing projects.

The Research Experience section is the main dish of your CV. It is a quick glance over your research record and it gives you the chance to highlight yourself up to the eyes of the reader. Remember that it is always important to sell yourself towards the specific requirements.

The Conferences and Presentations sections is important because it shows your early progress as a young to be researcher and also shows that you have experience sharing your science.

The Laboratory skills, certainly not as important as critical thinking and problem-solving skills. However, specific skills could reduce the time you spend getting use to the environment of a new laboratory.

The Membership section can show your commitment and awareness to your scientific community.

The Extra-curricular courses can show your willingness to learn besides the mandatory courses you took to finish your major.

  1. Transcript

The Academic Leadership can show your willingness to make other people grow and your spirit to help and contribute.

To conclude, Personal References.

Mr. XXXXXXXXXXX

Adressssssssssssssssssssss (+51)

xxxxxxxxx Adressssssssssssssssssssssssss                                         Xxxxxxxxx

@gmail.com

Objective

I seek to obtain a P.hD. degree in a very well renowned program. During my P.hD. years I would like to contribute to the scientific community with the research I would perform. I aim to put in practice my problem solving, analytical thinking, and leadership skills in a very competitive laboratory.

Research Interest

  • Experimental condensed matter physics and nanoscience (graphene/2D materials, superconductors, novel materials, quantum phenomena). •
  • Characterization of materials in the nanoscale with electron microscopy (structural composition analysis, TEM, SEM). •
  • Scanning Probe Microscopy (tuning fork based, fabrication of tips, study of surfaces STM/AFM).

Education

2010 – 2014 (Expected) | National University of Engineering (UNI), Lima, Peru B. Engineering Physics, ranked 1st in my class. GPA: 4.0

Awards

  • 2 nd place in undergraduate research paper (topic: sciences). ‘Structure your ideas contest’, organized by a link between industry and Peruvian NSF (Concytec), Peru, November 2014.
  • Peruvian NSF (Concytec) fellowship 2014. Full stipend for a 3 month research internship at McMaster University, Canada, spring 2014.
  • Manuel Pardo y Lavalle’s award, 2013. Distinction given to UNI students with the highest GPA in their major by their 3rd year of courses.
  • nanoREPU program fellowship 2013. Chosen for a 3 months research internship at Purdue University, USA, spring 2013. (http://repuprogram.com/REPU/Alumni.html)
  • proUNI (organization formed by distinguished UNI alumni) fellowship. Full stipend for 3 months research internship at Purdue University, USA.
  • 1 st place in Nanotechnology poster competition at 3rd International Conference of Spectroscopy, Peru, February 2012. 7.
  1. Transcript

Publications

  • A. Villegas, and A. Gutarra, “Controlled geometry and sharpness of carbon-based nanometer tips: a theoretical and experimental approach” (in progress).
  • A. Moran Meza, C. Lubin, F. Thoyer, K. A. Villegas, A. Gutarra, F. Martin, and J. Cousty, “Fabrication of ultra-sharp tips from carbon fiber for STM investigations of graphene on 6H-SiC(0001) surfaces”, Carbon 86, 363 (2015).
  • A. Villegas, and G. Botton, “Inversion of contrast, SEM imaging, at different bias and accelerating voltages” (in progress).
  • A. Villegas, S. Stambula, and G. Botton, “N-doping and Pt-atoms decorated mechanically exfoliated suspended graphene” (in progress).
  • A. Villegas, J. Aparicio, T. L. Wu, and Y. P. Chen, “Fabrication, characterization, and study of mechanically exfoliated materials” (in progress).
  • A. Villegas, and A. Gutarra, “Fabrication of carbon fiber tips for Scanning Probe Microscopy” (selected for cover), TECNIA 22, 17-22 (2012).

Research Experience

McMaster University, Advisor: Dr. Gianluigi Botton Microscopy of Nanoscale Materials Laboratory (01/2014 – 04/2014)

I introduced mechanical exfoliation (graphene) to the group for the first time. I built and designed a homemade transfer stage to suspend graphene on a TEM grid. We achieved to doped graphene with nitrogen gas (concentrations of doping could be varied). I designed the conditions to sputter ~ 1 nm Pt clusters on graphene. I did TEM and SEM analysis on suspended/non-suspended graphene.

Purdue University, Advisor: Dr. Yong P. Chen

Quantum Matter and Devices Lab

(02/2013 – 04/2014)

I mechanically exfoliated graphene, MoS2, BN and BSCCO. I measured the height of exfoliated flakes with AFM in tapping mode configuration and I corroborated their number of layers by Raman spectroscopy. We built FETs of BSCCO with different thickness (10 nm to 80 nm) on SiO2 wafers and I performed electronic transport measurements at low temperatures (down to T = 1.2 K) using a variable temperature insert.

National University of Engineering, Advisor: Dr. Abel Gutarra

Nanostructured Materials Laboratory,

(04/2014 – 05/2014)

I designed and built a low-cost lock-in amplifier from scratch; this amplifier will be used to measure the photocurrent (in pA) generated in a photodiode by light scattering of non-metallic nanoparticles.

(07/2011 – ) We work in the fabrication of a tuning-fork based AFM. I electrochemically etch carbon fibers to a tip (probe for AFM). I designed my experimental set-up (micromanipulators and electrochemical cell). I achieved reproducibility in the fabrication process. I can control the geometry and sharpness (~ 10-50 nm) of the tip. We measured the tip radius with SEM and Field-Emission experiments. Using the fabricated tips we could reconstruct the graphene lattice.

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  1. Transcript

under STM experiments. I am working on theory and simulations to understand the underlying phenomena.

Conference and Presentations

  • A. Villegas, T. L. Wu, L. Fang, Z. Xiao, Y. P. Chen. “Study of mechanically exfoliated BSCCO, high temperature superconductor”, XXII Peruvian Physical Symposium, Lima – Peru (October 2013) – Conference. •
  • A. Villegas, T. L. Wu, and Y. P. Chen. “Mechanical exfoliation of 2D materials and its morphological characterization”, REPU 2013 meeting, Yale University – USA (March 2013) – Conference. •
  • A. Villegas. Participation in the APS March Meeting 2013. •
  • A. Villegas, A. Gutarra. “Fabrication of carbon fiber tips for Scanning Probe Microscopy”. XXI Peruvian Physical Symposium, Trujillo – Peru (October 2012) – Conference. •
  • A. Villegas, A. Gutarra. “Electrochemical analysis of anodic dissolution of carbon fibers”. 3st Congress of Physics Engineering, Medellin – Colombia (September 2012) – Conference. •
  • A. Villegas, A. Gutarra. “Method for the fabrication of tips on nanometer scale based on carbon fibers”. 3rd International Conference of Spectroscopy, Lima – Peru (February 2012) – Poster.
  • Laboratory skills Imaging & characterization, SEM, TEM, Auger spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, AFM, optical microscopy, interferometry measurement.
  • Vacuum components
  • Microfabrication, RF magnetron sputtering, plasma etching, electrochemical etching/polishing, mechanical exfoliation.
  • Programming, C, Matlab, LabView (Intermediate), IGOR pro, Latex.
  • Data Processing, Origin Pro, IGOR Pro, ImageJ.
  • Electronic measurement, lock-in amplifier, probe
  1. Transcript
  • “X-ray and electron diffraction applied to nanomaterials and nanomedicine”, International Workshop, Peru, June 2012.
  • “Exploring Quantum Physics”, Joint Quantum Institute, Maryland University, trough coursera.org
  • “Atomic Force Microscopy”, 3st Congress of Physics Engineering, Colombia. September 2012. • “Theoretical-Experimental Techniques for studying nanosystems”, Nano-Peru, Peru. November 2011.
  • “I Course of Molecular Biology”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru. March 2011.

Miscellaneous Activities

  • ‘Journal Club @ UNI’, I scheduled the room, oriented the group of students, and made a calendar of papers presented; first journal club at National University of Engineering. (04/2013 – 07/2013) and (04/2014 – 07/2014).
  • ‘thinkUNI’, talks of how to pursue graduate studies directed to undergraduates. (12/2013) – I served as head organizer. I scheduled the place for the conference, and was chair of the conference. (12/2012) – I served as part of the organizer committee. I helped to set up the conference room, and build/distribute the flyers.
  • ‘Sharing Science’, I served as part of the organizer committee and was chair of the conferences, talks about research projects from graduate students to undergraduates, (04/2012 – 07/2012).

Personal References

Dr. Yong P. Chen Purdue University, USA                                           Phone: (765) 494- 0947

yongchen@purdue.edu

Dr. Gianluigi Botton McMaster University, Canada         Phone: (905) 525-9140, ext. 24767 gbotton@mcmaster.ca

Dr. Abel Gutarra National University of Engineering, Peru          Phone: +51 987-957- 517 agutarra@uni.edu.pe 7

Transcript  7.

You against the world: the transcript plus some side documents

Another required document is your transcript e.g. ‘tu certificado de notas’. In the case that you haven’t graduated yet, you can apply to graduate school with the latest updated transcript.

That could mean that you present your transcript up to the 9th semester if you are in the 10th . Also, if you failed courses along the way use ‘certificado depurado’. I failed ‘lenguaje’ in my 3rd semester, so I needed to get the latter transcript. At UNI you could get a transcript from ORCE or your own department. From friends that applied before me they told me to use the one from ORCE, so I don’t know if the one my department would have worked. Nevertheless, the ORCE one is ‘more official’. You will need to translate it.

During the application process I went to EducationUSA (located at ICPNA) and there they told ICPNA has a translation service, so I used that one. They will ask you to scan the document and send it to them through e-mail, and you will have to make a deposit to a bank account for the translations. When the work is done they will write you back for you to pick the documents. I also want to let you know that EducationUSA offers support for the application process – they even give small scholarships for test prep and they can afford to pay some school for you to apply to. Go early in the process to get advantage of this opportunity.

UNI does not use the GPA system and I am not aware if any school in Peru uses it. I recall there are many GPA convertors in the internet, but I know the grades in Peru fluctuate depending on your university, so its tricky and I don’t have a universal solution. Fortunately for me, UNI had implemented a grade-to-GPA conversion system, so I used directly that one.

From of my visits to EducationUSA I learned that they provide a document called ‘Educational System and Grading System in Peru’. This document clarifies to US schools how grades work in Peru. Hence, it is highly recommended to attach this document with your transcript.

Many universities ask for a certificate that states the expected date of graduation, which means last semester of courses. A good friend suggested me to take advantage of it. I asked for such a document and on it I asked the Head of my department to write a note. The note stated my ranking among my peers.

For example

This document certifies that xxxxxxxxxxx, has finished his 9th semester, out of 10, with the highest cumulative grade of his Engineering Physics class. Up to his 9th semester his cumulative grade was 14.643 which is an equivalent to A+ (excellent). His cumulative grade is an equivalent to a GPA of 4.0.

Also, this is provisional certificate that Mr. xxxxx expected date of graduation is December of 2014.

  1. Post-application e-mail

It took me a while to just craft this template. Luie, contributed to it a lot – my English was very bad at that time, now is a little better. Thanks, Luie.

If you do not receive a reply e-mail do not forgot to use a follow up e-mail after a week.

Dear Professor XXXXX,

 

My name is XXXX.

I am finishing up my undergraduate studies in xxxxxx from xxxxxxxxxx at Lima, Peru. I am applying to Princeton University’s Electrical Engineer PhD program, and I would like to know if your laboratory will have available positions for the fall of 2015.

I have had the chance to work with field effect nano-devices based on thin BSCCO layers. I have studied its Raman spectra and AFM vs. thickness dependence. Also I have studied their resistance vs. temperature dependence down to liquid helium temperatures. I worked in this project in a spring semester internship (spring of 2013) at Purdue University (under prof. Y. P. Chen’s guidance). During the spring of 2014 I worked on suspended, nitrogendoped, and platinum decorated graphene with the help of transmission electron microscopes and other electron microscopy techniques at McMaster University (prof. G Botton). At my home university I have worked in the fabrication of SPM tips for my undergrad thesis.

I have read your paper on the study of the FQHE with a filling factor of 1/2 (PRB 89, 165313, 2014). I am very interested in the study of condense matter systems and their quantum phenomena such as QHE and topological superconductivity. I have been exposed to the techniques of how to deal with 2-dimension materials and how to fabricate nanodevices based on exfoliated crystals and in my home university I have been exposed to SPM techniques (we are building one STM from scratch). In the group of prof. Burch, they have obtained a density of states spectra using a tunnel junction and AC differential conductance (Nature Communications 3, 1056, 2012). I think it would be a good idea to perform the AC differential conductance method and try to map the charge distribution of the 2DHSs and see if the behavior is single-layer or bi-layer like when the filling factor of the FQHE is 1/2. The heterostructure system would allow the fabrication of the tunnel junction.

Do you think it would be worthwhile to pursue these experiments in your laboratory?

Best regards,

xxxxxxxxxxxx (xxxxxxx@gmail.com)

 

  1. Interviews

Just one final step: interviews

Near the end of the application process I encounter two types of interviewers. One from the admission’s office (yet a faculty in the university). And, the other a professor that you contacted through e-mail.

The first type of interview will come from the admission’s office. The e-mail will contain information regarding who is going to interview you and the schedule.

The second type of interview will come directly from the faculty that you expressed interest in you Statement of Purpose.

After the interviews I realized that the one from the admission’s office was far more general than what I thought. One of the interviewers asked me to interview him instead of him interviewing me. The second and I just talked a lot about general Physics.

First, we will talk a little bit about the interview with a specific professor. Since you have expressed interest into working with him it makes sense for you to have tons of questions. In this specific case you need to prepare/familiarize a little more with the topic of the professor for the interview because, I believe, he will be gauging you.

To prepare yourself you need to know very well the person you will be interviewing with e.g. What is he famous for? Which is his most cited paper and why?

During the interview, most of the talk may lay upon the professor, but he will be willing to know about you too. We can recall some topics such as ‘goals for graduate studies’, ‘academic & research experiences’, and ‘your desire for graduate studies’.

During the interview with the admission’s office questions such as Why that school in specific? and Why that program in specific? will pop up. These are considered more general in terms of research, but, however, they are of equal importance.

A typical question that always seems to appear is the ‘strengths and weaknesses’. In your strengths you can name hard working, passionate, dedicated, but in the weaknesses be careful. Although the name is ‘weaknesses’ you will need to find a balance between a weaknesses and a strength. Maybe being workaholic, it is way more than sure that a professor may like that word; however, you can blend it with a little of bad things such as ‘work so hard until completion that forget to call friends’.

In the interview with the graduate committee you may be asked why you are interested in that specific program, and you will be required to mention the professors you are interested into and briefly their research.

  1. Further reading

[1] Demystifying the U.S. Graduate School Application Process. Luis Hernandez. REPU magazine.2013.

(https://attachment.fbsbx.com/file_download.php?id=575529479207417&eid=ASvXDFy1jN Z4lA4iod1_JoL8Z57MU2GxM6KSnuJWGc_BWbaFe7jAMnX5CfSqycj- _vY&inline=1&ext=1431366552&hash=ASt2jcb4dCN-i4du)

[2] What is like to be a tenured professor? Quora thread. Special remarks on Jay Wacker answer. (https://www.quora.com/What-is-it-like-to-be-a-professor)

[3] How do I ghost-write myself a good letter of recommendation from my professor? I am applying on the academic job market. Quora thread. Special remarks on Jay Wacker answer. (https://www.quora.com/How-do-I-ghost-write-myself-a-good-letter-of-recommendationfrom-my-professor-I-am-applying-on-the-academic-job-market)

[4] Graduate Record Exam (GRE): What is the best way to prepare for the GRE? http://www.quora.com/Graduate-Record-Exam-GRE-2/What-is-the-best-way-to-prepare-forthe-GRE?srid=XfG5&share=1

[5] What is the best piece of advice given by people’s PhD supervisor? http://www.quora.com/What-is-the-best-piece-of-advice-given-by-peoples-PhDsupervisors?srid=XfG5&share=1

[6] HOWTO: Get into grad school for science, engineering, math, and computer science http://matt.might.net/articles/how-to-apply-and-get-in-to-graduate-school-in-sciencemathematics-engineering-or-computer-science/

[7] How do you compare pursuing a PhD in Europe vs a PhD in USA http://www.quora.com/How-do-you-compare-pursuing-a-PhD-in-Europe-vs-a-PhD-inUSA?srid=XfG5&share=1

[8] How do I judge professors while choosing an adviser, solely based on their research? https://www.quora.com/How-do-I-judge-professors-while-choosing-an-adviser-solely-basedon-their-research

[9] How to be More Productive and Eliminate Time Wasting Activities by Using the “Eisenhower Box” http://jamesclear.quora.com/How-to-be-More-Productive-and-EliminateTime-Wasting-Activities-by-Using-the-%E2%80%9CEisenhowerBox%E2%80%9D?srid=XfG5&share=1

 

Acknowledgements

 Acknowledgements

First, I would like to acknowledge Abel Alcazar the founder of the Research Experience for Peruvian Undergraduates (REPU), for if he had not founded the program you may not be reading this document – sometimes, it only takes the action of a person to keep things rolling Second, I would like to give special thanks to the actual directors of the REPU Sofia Espinoza and Kenji-Diaz for their labor of keep the REPU program growing.

Special thanks to the friends and family, for if their support has not existed we could not have made it ‘till this very end point.

Last but not least I would like to express my vast gratitude towards the nanoREPU branch; Luis Jauregui, Alfredo Tuesta, Alfredo Bobadilla, Edson Bellido, Jimmy Encomendero, and Keitel Cervantez. This guide was written because their knowledge fell into my mind. Thank you.

And for the reader, sorry for the typos .

Kevin Villegas Rosales 

 

Animarse y buscar oportunidades

Este material forma parte de la experiencia profesional de Kevin Villegas Rosales, a quien damos nuevamente las gracias. Los animamos a revisar cada capítulo, a investigar aquellos aspectos que sean de interés particular o de los que tengan dudas, sobre todo, los animamos a compartir esta Guía en las redes, con sus colegas, amigos y conocidos, que cada día un/a estudiante latino/a acceda a una nueva oportunidad de estudios, superación y progreso. ¡Y mucha suerte!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Building Bridges”, evento donde Ekpa’palek dice presente

Gracias a la colaboración de una de nuestras Mentoras, Ekpa’palek está presente en el evento denominado Building Bridges, que se lleva a cabo en la ciudad de Victoria, Australia.

1ee32feb-243a-4728-b31c-fc6a8cee2319Compromiso con la comunidad

Nathalia Hernández León, Master en Comercio con énfasis Contabilidad y Finanzas.. y también mentora en el programa de Mentorías Profesionales de Ekpa’palek. Actualmente se desempeña como Asesora Tributaria de pequeñas y medianas empresas en Australia:

“Mi objetivo es promover la educación y alfabetización financiera de la Comunidad Latinoamericana, con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida de Individuos y organizaciones y fomentar el desarrollo sostenible de sus comunidades.

La organizacion Latin Stories Australia me invito a ser parte de la exhibición “Building Bridges”. La exhibición presentara algunas de las historias de latinoamericanos que viven en Victoria a partir de 12 fotografías grupales divididas en diferentes categorías.

Fui seleccionada para una de las fotografías que se exhibirán del 15 al 25 de  noviembre del 2018 en “No Vacancy Gallery” en QV Building, Melbourne, Australia.

Gracias a Ekpa’palek, pude promover mi historia y contribución a Victoria dentro del área de “volunteer/community” relevante al objetivo de este proyecto”.

Photo9

El “detrás de cámaras” (con voluntarios de otras organizaciones). Nathalia con el afiche de Ekpa’palek

Huellas latinas en Victoria

El objetivo de la exhibición es: “Reconocer, grabar y compartir las historias de los latinoamericanos en la historia de Victoria. Los beneficios esperados de la exposición son el fortalecimiento de las relaciones y la cooperación entre las diferentes comunidades latinoamericanas, la sensibilización sobre las contribuciones sociales y económicas de los latinoamericanos a Victoria y el aumento del orgullo comunitario” “Más de 140 miembros de la comunidad que representan a doce países latinoamericanos participaron en la sesión fotográfica del 15 y 16 de septiembre de 2018 en Meat Market (North Melbourne) y Abbotsford Convent.

Las fotografías tomadas representan la voz de nuestra comunidad y demuestran nuestra contribución a Victoria en doce categorías diferentes. Somos más de 20,000 latinos que viven en Victoria; cada persona en las fotos no solo representa sus propias historias, sino las historias de toda nuestra comunidad”. 

 

https://www.latinstoriesaustralia.com/building-bridges/

 Exhibition Information:

15-25 NOVEMBER 2018    |    NO VACANCY GALLERY    |     34-40 JANE BELL LANE, QV BUILDING

OPENING NIGHT – 15 NOVEMBER – 6:00 TO 8:00 PM

 

 

 

 

Alessandra Romero: superación, becas y doctorado en microbiología

En esta oportunidad los invitamos a conocer la experiencia de una joven peruana radicada en Reino Unido. Su trayectoria y sus vivencias en general,  poseen el caudal necesario para motivar a otros/as estudiantes latinos/as a buscar nuevas oportunidades de estudio, nuevos caminos para seguir creciendo como profesionales y como seres humanos. Con el correr del tiempo, este crecimiento se traduce en aportes concretos al desarrollo y avance del conocimiento, y redundan en beneficios para grandes sectores de la humanidad. Pero puede comenzar con el sencillo y significativo hecho de inspirar a otros, de cambiar destinos. Les presentamos a Alessandra Romero.

IMG-20180921-WA0012_2Alessandra Romero

Mi acercamiento a la Biología

Nací en Lima, Perú, sin embargo, he vivido toda mi vida en el Callao. Estudié primaria y secundaria en el colegio San Antonio del Callao, un colegio solo para niñas (en esa época). El amor por la ciencia y la curiosidad que tenía al querer saber el porqué de las cosas, fueron cruciales en mi decisión para definir mi vocación. Durante mis últimos años de secundaria, cuando se tiene que decidir una carrera y un futuro profesional, ya tenía una idea aunque aún no clara, de que quería dedicarme a cursar una carrera STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics por sus siglas en inglés). Sin embargo, mis padres querían que estudiara algo más relacionado con sus respectivas especialidades, vale decir administración, negocios internacionales, etcétera.

Me decidí a estudiar y dedicarme a la biología en mi último año del colegio, gracias a unos libros de biología general que había descargado de internet, los cuales explicaban muchos conceptos nuevos para mí, así como documentales que veía en mis ratos libres.

Desde ese momento sentí que la biología era a lo que realmente quería dedicarme en la vida, una carrera que me gusta, sabiendo de antemano que debía tener un compromiso constante con el estudio (estaba consciente que esto no iba a ser nada fácil), aparte estaba el reto de formarme en una carrera científica en el Perú.

Saliendo del colegio me preparé en un centro pre-universitario para ingresar a una universidad nacional, lo logré en mi segundo intento de postulación. Sin embargo, ingresé a mi segunda opción de carrera que era ingeniería. Estudié un año ingeniería agrícola y luego me cambié de carrera y de universidad; hice un traslado externo a la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia UPCH, para estudiar la carrera que realmente quería.

Desarrollo Profesional

Al terminar el pregrado en biología, decidí realizar la tesis para obtener el grado de licenciatura. Mi tesis la realicé en un laboratorio de la misma universidad (LIEI-LID) trabajando específicamente en la producción de anticuerpos policlonales como herramienta para diagnostico contra la enfermedad de Chagas,una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el parásito Trypanosoma cruzi. Una vez culminada mi tesis, trabajé como asistente de laboratorio en un proyecto dentro de la misma área de investigación (enfermedad de Chagas), iniciando así mi especialización por los parásitos. Paralelamente al trabajo, me estaba preparando para dar los exámenes internacionales (TOEFL y GRE) con el fin de postular a un postgrado en el extranjero.

Mi idea inicial era postular a una maestría para luego realizar un doctorado. Sin embargo, una amiga me convenció de que postulara directamente al PhD debido a que veía que me resultaba un poco difícil conseguir una beca para un master. Fue así como cursé directamente el PhD, sin haber realizado nunca una maestría.

Estaba muy nerviosa ya que sabía que era un entorno muy competitivo pero puse todo mi esfuerzo y tiempo para lograrlo; obtuve una vacante en University of Liverpool y una beca financiada por el gobierno peruano.

IMG-20180921-WA0018

Idiomas, elementos fundamentales

El hecho de aprender y saber otro idioma aparte de tu lengua materna trae muchas ventajas cuando se quiere salir del país para buscar un trabajo o para avanzar profesionalmente.

Concretamente, el idioma inglés te abre las puertas al mundo de una manera inimaginable. Yo aprendí inglés desde pequeña ya que mi colegio era bilingüe pero no lo perfeccioné sino hasta llegar a la universidad cuando me inscribí en un instituto de idiomas para poder llegar al nivel avanzado y dar un examen internacional.

Ahora que estudio en una universidad en Reino Unido, me he dado cuenta de lo importante que es saber y hablar correctamente otro idioma. Gracias al inglés he podido conocer gente de diferentes países del mundo y conocer sobre otras culturas. Asimismo, he conocido diferentes lugares, tanto por viajar para la presentación de mi trabajo de doctorado como por tomar simplemente vacaciones e impulsar mi carrera en un futuro para aplicar a un trabajo.

Estudiantes globalizados

El ser estudiante internacional en un país tan diferente al tuyo no es nada fácil. Mi experiencia aquí en el Reino Unido ha sido muy enriquecedora ya que he aprendido muchísimo de todas las personas que me rodean (profesores, supervisores, técnicos,etcétera) los cuales a su vez me han ayudado mucho en el desempeño de mi proyecto.

Aparte de todos los conocimientos ganados en estos últimos años, ser una estudiante internacional me ha traído nuevas amistades y he logrado crear lazos duraderos con personas de todo el mundo. En el ámbito personal, el salir de mi país y vivir en el extranjero me ha enseñado a vivir independientemente lejos de mi familia, valerme por mí misma, ganar mucha más confianza y ser más tolerante y abierta a los cambios.

No todo es estudio y trabajo

En mis tiempos libres me gusta leer un buen libro (de preferencia novelas) e ir al gimnasio para mantenerme activa. Otro de mis pasatiempos favoritos era armar rompecabezas gigantes (jigsaw puzzles) de más de 1000 piezas. Trataba de escoger los que parecían más difíciles con colores y patrones similares y cada vez trataba de armarlos en la menor cantidad de tiempo posible. Esto me mantenía muy entretenida y a la vez era una manera de distraerme y relajarme. Otra de las cosas que me gustaba mucho hacer era jugar con mis dos perros peruanos, sacarlos a pasear por el parque y jugar con ellos.

Mentores: invalorable apoyo

Sin duda una de mis primeras mentoras fue mi madre, quien siempre me motivó a que estudiara algo que realmente me gustara. Su apoyo incondicional y soporte fueron factores determinantes en el desarrollo de mis actividades profesionales. En la carrera propiamente dicha, uno de mis grandes mentores fue el Dr. Robert Gilman, jefe de los laboratorios de investigación de enfermedades infecciosas de UPCH. Es una persona admirable con mucho conocimiento y amor por la ciencia. En el transcurso del doctorado, mi mentor sin duda alguna es mi supervisor, el Dr. Andrew Jackson, quien me ha enseñado a ganar confianza, me motiva a seguir y a tener más curiosidad sobre mi tema de investigación.

IMG-20180921-WA0025

A otros estudiantes

Basada en mi experiencia, recomiendo a todos aquellos estudiantes con grandes deseos de superación, que se prepararen muy bien para poder salir de su país y estudiar en el extranjero. El salir te trae un sinfín de oportunidades y un gran desarrollo profesional.

Recomiendo a los jóvenes y en esto hago énfasis, que se dediquen y se den un tiempo para evaluar todas las posibilidades que tienen en el exterior y las ventajas que estudiar y trabajar en otro país les pueda traer.

Todo se puede lograr con perseverancia y ganas de salir adelante para tener un mejor desarrollo profesional. Estudiar en una de las mejores universidades del mundo es una de las más significativas experiencias que he podido tener hasta ahora, solo hay que salir de la zona de confort y poner mucho empeño para lograrlo.

Mi carrera en la actualidad

La microbiología y en especial el trabajo de desarrollo de vacunas junto con la biotecnología es hoy en día un área de la biología muy demandada. La producción de vacunas para la prevención de enfermedades parasitarias en animales, repercute de manera directa en la economía de los productores y ganaderos. Es pues de suma importancia el descubrimiento de nuevas proteínas antigénicas, con un potencial uso para la producción de vacunas y una posible erradicación de la enfermedad.

Para concluir, quiero mencionar que actualmente, la inmunología junto con la bioinformática juegan un papel fundamental en este proceso. El desarrollo de vacunas gracias a la vacunología reversa, brinda una nueva estrategia para la producción de vacunas basadas en herramientas bioinformáticas analizando secuencias del genoma del parásito. Estos avances permiten encontrar nuevos antígenos que antes no hubiese sido posibles encontrar (empleando métodos convencionales).


Muchísimas gracias a Alessandra por compartir su testimonios con la comunidad Ekpa’palek! No dudes en contactarla como parte de nuestro programa de mentorías profesionales!

Encuéntranos en : 

https://www.ekpapalek.com/mentorias-profesionales

Vilma y Clarissa